彌賽亞預表 TYPOLOGY OF THE MESSIAH (以賽亞書廿二15~25)

讀經:  以賽亞書廿二15~25

SCRIPTURE READING:  Isaiah 22:15-25

釋義:  這是一首彌賽亞性的詩歌。  以賽亞提到舍伯那和以利亞敬兩個歷史政治人物, 必定是向當時代的猶大人宣告預言。  然而以利亞敬同時是及大衛家未來的希望──「堅固處……榮耀的寶座」(23), 又稱呼他為耶和華的「僕人」(20),「他必作耶路撒冷居民和猶大家的父」 (21),這些都是指向將來興起的大衛家的君王(例詩一卅二;賽卅七35; 九6)。  而且新約稱呼基督就是「那聖潔、真實、拿者大衛的鑰匙,開了沒有人能關,關了就沒有人能開的」(啟三7)。  所以以利亞敬成了基督的預表人物。

INSIGHT — This is a Messianic song. The fact that Isaiah mentions two historical political figures, Shebna and Eliakim, indicates that the Israelites in that period were the targeted audience of this prophecy. Yet, at the same time, Eliakim is the hope of the house of David – “in a secure place… a throne of honor “(23); he is also called the Lord’s “servant” (20); “and he shall be a father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem and to the house of Judah “(21) – All these verses point to the king who will be raised up from the house of David (example Psalm 132, Isaiah 37:35, 9:6). Also, the New Testament calls Christ Precisely,  “the holy one, the true one, who has the key of David, who opens and no one

will shut, who shuts and no one opens “(Revelation 3:7). So, Eliakim comes to be the type of the Messiah in this typology.

舍伯那與以利亞敬都在舊約聖經中出現, 他們是主前七○一年動盪時期的人物(卅六3,11,22;卅七2)。在這些記載中,以利亞敬是「家宰」,而舍伯那只是一名「臣宰」, 以賽亞大概是在主前七○一年之前, 向舍伯那發出豫言, 因為那時舍舍伯那被「趕逐離開官職……從原位撤下」(19), 正如先知所預告。

Both Shebna and Eliakim are Old Testament biblical figures during the tumultuous time in 701 BC (36:3,11,22; 37:2). According to these records, Eliakim was ‘over the household’, and Shebna was just a ‘secretary’. Isaiah declared the prophecy to Shebna just before 701 BC because that is the year Shebna was thrust from his office and pulled down from his station “(19), just as the prophet had prophesized.

聖經沒有明確指出舍伯那被棄的原因。他可能倡導上文不合時宜的宴樂(「因為明天要死了」,8-14);無論如何, 這段經文說舍伯那在高處的磐石鑿墳, 太概希望死後獲葬在類似王陵(參代下卅二33)的墳墓裡, 可見他如何高抬自己, 因而讓位給「我僕人希勒家的兒子以利亞敬」。

The Bible has no clear indication of the reason for Shebna’s removal from office.  Perhaps it had something to do with him advocating the untimely feast (“for tomorrow we die” 8-14). Regardless, here it says that Shebna cuts out a tomb on the height, probably hoping to be buried in tombs like those for kings (refer to 2 Chronicles 32:33), which shows how he exalted himself and consequently had to  relinquish his position to “my servant Eliakim son of Hilkiah”.

以利亞敬名意是「耶和華必成就」的衣飾是屬於祭司,代表授職的永恆性,及其來自神的宗教權柄(出廿九5-9)。「大衛家的鑰匙」是這官職特權的象徵。他可以開啟皇室的閘門, 當然包括兵械庫及國庫, 這就代表極大的權力。國家大事到管家的小事, 所有事務都依靠他。「他父家的重擔」(24,「榮耀」原文是「重擔」)都掛在他身上,

結果即使以利亞敬是彌賽亞的預表, 也承擔不了, 被拖跨壓斜而剪斷。

The name Eliakim means “the Lord will raise up”. He is clothed with priest’s garment, symbolic of the eternity of the appointment and his religious authority from God (Exodus 29:5-9). “The key of the house of David” symbolizes the special privilege of this position. He can open gates in the palace, including the armory and the treasury – indicative of the enormous power he held. From national affairs to trivial household matters, everything is committed to his hand. “The whole honor of his father’s house “ (24, “honor” – “weight” in original text) is hung on him. As a result, despite being the

type of the Messiah, Eliakim ultimately gives way, falls and is cut off.

任何國家的官員, 如舍伯那、以利亞敬、什至彌賽亞的預表, 都不可以無限制地壟斷政治局面或恆久地釋放人間各種壓力; 惟獨基督才能賜予安息、平安和盼望。

Any government official, such as Shebna, and Eliakim, even the type of the Messiah, cannot dominate politics or exert pressure on the world forever.  Only Christ can grant rest, peace, and hope.

    君王不能因兵多得勝;勇士不能因力大得救。

    靠馬得救是枉然的;馬也不能因力大救人。

    耶和華的眼目看顧敬畏他的人和仰望他慈愛的人。(詩卅三16-18)

    有人靠車,有人靠馬,但我們要提到耶和華─我們神的名。(詩廿7)

“The king is not saved by his great army;

    a warrior is not delivered by his great strength.

  The war horse is a false hope for salvation,

    and by its great might it cannot rescue.

Behold, the eye of the LORD is on those who fear him,

    on those who hope in his steadfast love”

(Psalm 33:16-18)

Some trust in chariots and some in horses,

    but we trust in the name of the LORD our God.

(Psalm 20:7)

請問你的倚靠和盼望是什麼?

What do you put your trust and hope in?

每日讀經  by 洪同勉牧師 Rev. Tommy Hung